/Chemical properties handbook pdf

Chemical properties handbook pdf

Please forward this error screen to 199. The use of chemical weapons is prohibited under customary international humanitarian law. Chemical warfare is different from the use of conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive effects chemical properties handbook pdf chemical weapons are not primarily due to any explosive force.

About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical warfare agents during the 20th century. The entire class known as Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions have been scheduled for elimination by the CWC. Have few, if any, legitimate uses. Have no large-scale industrial uses, but may have legitimate small-scale uses.

Both have been used as chemical weapons but phosgene is an important precursor in the manufacture of plastics and chloropicrin is used as a fumigant. Ancient Greek myths about Hercules poisoning his arrows with the venom of the Hydra monster are the earliest references to toxic weapons in western literature. Some of the earliest surviving references to toxic warfare appear in the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. The Art of War described the use of fire weapons against the enemy. Arsenical smokes were known to the Chinese as far back as c. The earliest recorded use of gas warfare in the West dates back to the fifth century BC, during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. In the late 15th century, Spanish conquistadors encountered a rudimentary type of chemical warfare on the island of Hispaniola.

The TaĆ­no threw gourds filled with ashes and ground hot peppers at the Spaniards to create a blinding smoke screen before launching their attack. Christoph Bernhard von Galen tried to use toxic fumes during the siege of the city of Groningen in 1672. Chalk, fine sulfide of arsenic, and powdered verdegris may be thrown among enemy ships by means of small mangonels, and all those who, as they breathe, inhale the powder into their lungs will become asphyxiated. It is unknown whether this powder was ever actually used. Lyon Playfair proposed the industrial manufacture of cyanide artillery shells for use during the Crimean War. The modern notion of chemical warfare emerged from the mid-19th century, with the development of modern chemistry and associated industries. There was no sense in this objection.

It is considered a legitimate mode of warfare to fill shells with molten metal which scatters among the enemy, and produced the most frightful modes of death. Why a poisonous vapor which would kill men without suffering is to be considered illegitimate warfare is incomprehensible. War is destruction, and the more destructive it can be made with the least suffering the sooner will be ended that barbarous method of protecting national rights. A general concern over the use of poison gas manifested itself in 1899 at the Hague Conference with a proposal prohibiting shells filled with asphyxiating gas. The proposal was passed, despite a single dissenting vote from the United States. The Hague Declaration of 1899 and the Hague Convention of 1907 forbade the use of “poison or poisoned weapons” in warfare, yet more than 124,000 tons of gas were produced by the end of World War I. The French were the first to use chemical weapons during the First World War, using the tear gases ethyl bromoacetate and chloroacetone.