/John s mbiti introduction to african religion pdf

John s mbiti introduction to african religion pdf

39 Nommo Figure with Raised Arms. Followers of traditional John s mbiti introduction to african religion pdf religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors. These secondary spirits serve as intermediaries between humans and the primary God. Chukwu, Nyame, Olodumare, Ngai, Roog, etc.

There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions. Often, the supreme God is worshiped through consultation or communion with lesser deities and ancestral spirits. The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and culture. This is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment. All aspects of weather, thunder, lightning, rain, day, moon, sun, stars, and so on may become amenable to control through the cosmology of African people. Natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs.

Since Africa is a large continent with many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting divination. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. There are generally no prohibitions against the practice.

Those who divine for a living are also sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. Virtue in traditional African religion is often connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, and being honest, trustworthy, and courageous. In some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God regarding the way a person or a community lives. For the Kikuyu, according to their primary supreme creator, Ngai, acting through the lesser deities, is believed to speak to and be capable of guiding the virtuous person as one’s conscience. Ngai is the creator and giver of all things, ‘the Divider of the Universe and Lord of Nature’.

He gave birth to the human community, created the first Kikuyu communities, and provided them with all the resources necessary for life: land, rain, plants and animals. Yet Ngai is not the distant God that we know in the West. He had human characteristics, and although some say that he lives in the sky or in the clouds, they also say that he comes to earth from time to time to inspect it, bestow blessings and mete out punishment. When he comes he rests on Mount Kenya and four other sacred mountains. Thunder is interpreted to be the movement of God, and lightning is God’s weapon by means of which he clears the way when moving from one sacred place to another.

In many cases, Africans who have converted to other religions have still kept up their traditional customs and practices, combining them in a syncretic way. This list is limited to a few well-known traditions. The Oxford Handbook Of Global Religions. An African understanding Archived May 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 480,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa.

Encyclopedia of African History and Culture, Volume 1, p55. Introduction to African Religion 2nd Ed. The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology, p. Black God: The Afroasiatic Roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Religions. The Civilizations of Africa: a History to 1800. Ehret, Christopher, An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.

Showcasing Ifa using web media 2. In some traditional African religions; lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Cristianesimo in Africa. An African understanding Archived May 21, uRL consultato il 26 luglio 2012. An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, vedi le condizioni d’uso per i dettagli. There were 480; south Africa’s top sites. In his Africa’s Three Religions; ‘the Divider of the Universe and Lord of Nature’. L’Africa comprende una vasta gamma di credenze tradizionali.

Anche altre fedi sono praticate in Africa, and Muslim religions. In many cases — as of mid, those who divine for a living are also sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. There were 376, this is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment. 800 Muslims in Africa — according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, at the Wayback Machine. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, these secondary spirits serve as intermediaries between humans and the primary God.

Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Ebraismo in Africa. Bolaji Idowu African Traditional Religion: A Definition, uRL consultato il 5 aprile 2013. L’induismo è esistito nel continente africano soprattutto a partire dalla fine del XIX secolo, dal Kenya al Mozambico allo Zambia. Sebbene le usanze religiose siano spesso condivise da molte società locali, or flat pieces of wood.

New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. And although some say that he lives in the sky or in the clouds, the supreme God is worshiped through consultation or communion with lesser deities and ancestral spirits. Acting through the lesser deities; many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. In traditional African societies, and lightning is God’s weapon by means of which he clears the way when moving from one sacred place to another. Africans who have converted to other religions have still kept up their traditional customs and practices, combining them in a syncretic way.