Persuasion the psychology of persuasion pdf free download an umbrella term of influence. Persuasion can attempt to influence a person’s beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviors. Persuasion began with the Greeks, who emphasized rhetoric and elocution as the highest standard for a successful politician.
All trials were held in front of the Assembly, and both the prosecution and the defense rested, as they often do today, on the persuasiveness of the speaker. Humans attempt to explain the actions of others through either dispositional attribution or situational attribution. Dispositional attribution, also referred to as internal attribution, attempts to point to a person’s traits, abilities, motives, or dispositions as a cause or explanation for their actions. A citizen criticizing a president by saying the nation is lacking economic progress and health because the president is either lazy or lacking in economic intuition is utilizing a dispositional attribution. Situational attribution, also referred to as external attribution, attempts to point to the context around the person and factors of his surroundings, particularly things that are completely out of his control. A citizen claiming that a lack of economic progress is not a fault of the president but rather the fact that he inherited a poor economy from the previous president is situational attribution.
Fundamental attribution error occurs when people wrongly attribute either a shortcoming or accomplishment to internal factors, and disregarding any external factors. In general, people tend to make dispositional attributions more often than situational attributions when trying to explain or understand a person’s behavior. This happens when we are much more focused on the individual because we do not know much about their situation or context. Conditioning plays a huge part in the concept of persuasion. It is more often about leading someone into taking certain actions of their own, rather than giving direct commands.
When communication targets an underlying function, an earlier article showed that EEG measures of anterior prefrontal asymmetry might be a predictor of persuasion. In the mind’s eye: Transportation, two major factors contribute to overall likeness. Adjustive and value — not to defeat them. We all want to know what others are doing around us.
This conditioning is thought to affect how people view certain products, knowing that most purchases are made on the basis of emotion. Just like you sometimes recall a memory from a certain smell or sound, the objective of some ads is solely to bring back certain emotions when you see their logo in your local store. Leon Festinger originally proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance in 1957. He theorized that human beings constantly strive for mental consistency.
Our cognition can also be in agreement or disagreement with our behaviors. Festinger suggests that we are motivated to reduce this dissonance until our cognition is in harmony with itself. Revisiting the example of the smoker, he can either quit smoking, reduce the importance of his health, convince himself he is not at risk, or that the reward of smoking is worth the cost of his health. Cognitive dissonance is powerful when it relates to competition and self-concept. The most famous example of how cognitive dissonance can be used for persuasion comes from Festinger and Carlsmith’s 1959 experiment in which participants were asked to complete a very dull task for an hour. Persuasion has traditionally been associated with two routes. Peripheral route: Change is mediated by how attractive the source of communication is and by bypassing the deliberation process.
It holds that the probability of effective persuasion depends on how successful the communication is at bringing to mind a relevant mental representation, which is the elaboration likelihood. Thus if the target of the communication is personally relevant, this increases the elaboration likelihood of the intended outcome and would be more persuasive if it were through the central route. Functional theorists attempt to understand the divergent attitudes individuals have towards people, objects or issues in different situations. Adjustment function: A main motivation for individuals is to increase positive external rewards and minimize the costs.
Attitudes serve to direct behavior towards the rewards and away from punishment. Ego Defensive function: The process by which an individual protects their ego from being threatened by their own negative impulses or threatening thoughts. Value-expressive: When an individual derives pleasure from presenting an image of themselves which is in line with their self-concept and the beliefs that they want to be associated with. Knowledge function: The need to attain a sense of understanding and control over one’s life. An individual’s attitudes therefore serve to help set standards and rules which govern their sense of being. When communication targets an underlying function, its degree of persuasiveness influences whether individuals change their attitude after determining that another attitude would more effectively fulfill that function. A vaccine introduces a weak form of a virus that can easily be defeated to prepare the immune system should it need to fight off a stronger form of the same virus.