This article needs additional theatrical design and production pdf for verification. Stagecraft is the technical aspect of theatrical, film, and video production. Greeks were the earliest recorded practitioners of stagecraft.
Skene” is Greek, translating roughly into “scene” or “scenery”, and refers to a large scenic house, about one story tall, with three doors. On the audience-side of the Skene, what are now known as “flats” could be hung. Over 20 such scenic inventions can be traced back to the Greeks. Plays of Medieval times were held in different places such as the streets of towns and cities, performed by traveling, secular troupes.
Some were also held in monasteries, performed by church-controlled groups, often portraying religious scenes. The size and shape varied but many were suggested to be round theaters. Proscenium stages, or picture-box stages, were constructed in France around the time of the English Restoration, and maintain the place of the most popular form of stage in use to-date, and originally combined elements of the skene in design, essentially building a skene on-stage. Stagecraft during the Victorian era in England developed rapidly with the emergence of the West End. To control the focus of the light, a Fresnel lens was used. Originally intended to replace large, convex lenses in lighthouses, Dr. Fresnel sectioned out the convex lens in a series of circles, like tree-rings, and keeping the angle of the specific section, moved the section much closer to the flat side of the convex lens.
Hanging and focusing of lighting, often a stage. With the Commedia dell’arte in the sixteenth century being recognised as the first improvisation form. Stagecraft is distinct from the wider umbrella term of scenography. London and New York: Verso, toronto and Buffalo: U of Toronto P. These developed in the Yuan Dynasty into a more sophisticated form known as zaju – village feast with theatre performance circa 1600.
After candles, came gas lighting, utilizing pipes with small openings which were lit before every performance, and could be dimmed by controlling the flow of gas, so long as the flame never went out. With the turn of the 20th century, many theatre companies making the transition from gas to electricity would install the new system right next to the old one, resulting in many explosions and fires due to the electricity igniting the gas lines. Many lamps and lighting instruments are in use today, and the field is rapidly becoming one of the most diverse and complex in the industry. For a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of stagecraft.
Lighting: Lighting design, which involves the process of determining the angle, size, intensity, shape, and color of light for a given scene. Wigs: The application of makeup and wigs to accentuate an actor’s features. Mechanics: Design, engineering and operation of Flown scenery or flying of performers and mechanised scenic elements and special effects. Scenery, which includes set construction, scenic painting, theater drapes and stage curtains, and special effects. Sound design, which can include musical underscoring, vocal and instrument mixing as well as theatrical sound effects. Theatrical property, or props, which includes furnishings, set dressings, and all items large and small which cannot be classified as scenery, electrics or wardrobe. Props handled by actors are known as hand props, and props which are kept in an actor’s costume are known as personal props.