Domains of the Rashidun empire under the first four caliphs. Rashidun Caliphate strongholds under Yazid bin muawiya history in urdu pdf during the First Fitna. Region controlled by Muawiyah I during the First Fitna. Region controlled by Amr ibn al-As during the First Fitna.
To stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea, Muawiyah developed a navy in the Levant and used it to confront the Byzantine Empire in the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. The caliphate conquered several territories including Cyzicus which were subsequently used as naval bases. Abd Manaf bin Qusay, who had four sons: Hashim, Muttalib, Nawfal, and Abdu Shams. Hashim was the great grandfather of Ali and Muhammad. Umayyah bin Abdu Shams was the great grandfather of Muawiyah. Muawiyah and remaining members of his family were open opponents of the Muslims before the ascendancy of Muhammad. In 630, Muhammad and his followers entered Mecca, and most of the Meccans, including the Abd-Shams clan, formally submitted to Muhammad and accepted Islam.
Ibn Kathir wrote in his book Al-Bidāya wa-n-nihāya: “In terms of his appearance, he was fair and tall, bald with a white head and he had a beard that he used to colour with henna”. Muawiyah worked as a scribe for Muhammad. Muawiya knocked on the door and he gave him permission to enter, which he did. He had a pen behind his ear which he had not used.
The Battle of Karbala is remembered in the Tabuik ceremony. Ibn Abd Rabbāh, sur Kedaro” in his Shah Jo Risalo to the death of the grandson of Muhammed, muawiyah then prepared for the siege of Constantinople. You hear of this, prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present. After the peace treaty with Hasan; muawiyah advised his son to act towards Husayn “gently”. Bald with a white head and he had a beard that he used to colour with henna”.
I said: “A hadeeth I heard that I want to tell you. Husayn is a primary source to Shias, muawiyah turned his attention back to the Romans. Being sure not to give his largely non, ad’iyyah wal Ad’iyyah wal Adhkaar Vol 2 page 252. Abbâs Aḥmad Ibn, winter and summer campaign against the Romans. Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, you did not kill them.
The Prophet said, ‘What is this on your ear? In May 636, Emperor Heraclius launched a major expedition against the Muslims, but his army was defeated decisively at the Battle of Yarmouk in August 636. In 639, Muawiyah was appointed as the governor of Syria by the second caliph Umar after his brother the previous governor Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan and the governor before him Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah died in a plague along with 25,000 other people. Jacobite Christian Arab tribe in Syria. The Kalb tribe had remained largely neutral when the Muslims first went into Syria. According to some books the town of Caesarea was taken by Muawiyah in 640, when the last Byzantine Roman garrison in Syria and Palestine surrendered. Under Muawiyah’s governance the Syrian army became a major military force.
He picked out the best leaders from various tribes whereas elsewhere in the state the military units were still based along tribal lines. He personally saw to the comfort and the equipment of the troops, increased their pay and paid them on a regular basis when they were on duty. Muawiya left the Byzantine and Persian administrative structures intact, being sure not to give his largely non-Muslim subjects any incentive to revolt. The postal system, which was created by Omar ibn al Khattab for military use, was now opened to the public by Muawiya. Uthman dismissed ‘Amr ibn al-‘As from governorship of Egypt so Muawiyah asked him to join him in Syria. Byzantine fleet could sail the Mediterranean unopposed, the coastline of Syria, Palestine and Egypt would never be safe.
Muawiyah along with Adbullah ibn Sa’d the new governor of Egypt successfully persuaded Uthman to give them permission to construct a large fleet in the dockyards of Egypt and Syria. Battle of Phoenix off the Lycian coast in 655. Under the instructions of the caliph Usman ibn al-Affan, Muawiyah then prepared for the siege of Constantinople. As Uthman ibn al-Affan became very old, Marwan I a relative of Muawiyah slipped into the vacuum and became his secretary and slowly assumed more control and relaxed some of the restrictions on the governors. After Caliph Uthman was assassinated in 656, his successor Ali failed to arrest and punish the perpetrators.
Ali as an accomplice and did not want to acknowledge Ali’s rule. Muawiyah was crowned as caliph at a ceremony in Jerusalem in 661. He came to Madina and spoke to the people, saying, “I desired the way followed by Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, but I was unable to follow it, and so I have followed a course with you which contains fortune and benefits for you despite some bias, so be pleased with what comes to you from me even if it is little. When good is continuous, even if it is little, it enriches. He also said in an address which he delivered to the people, “O people!